Polygenic risk score penetrance & recurrence risk in familial Alzheimer disease

Author(s): Qiao, M; Lee, AJ; Reyes-Dumeyer, D; Tosto, G; Faber, K; Goate, A; Renton, A; Chao, M; Boeve, B; Cruchaga, C; Pericak-Vance, M; Haines, JL; Rosenberg, R; Tsuang, D; Sweet, RA; Bennett, DA; Wilson, RS; Foroud, T; Mayeux, R; Vardarajan, BN;
Year: 2023;  
Journal: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology;  
Volume: 10;  
Issue: 5;  

OBJECTIVE: To compute penetrance and recurrence risk using a genome-wide PRS (including and excluding the APOE region) in families with Alzheimer’s disease.
METHODS: Genotypes from the National Institute on Aging Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease Family-Based Study and a study of familial Alzheimer’s disease in Caribbean Hispanics were used to compute PRS with and without variants in the 2 MB region flanking APOE. PRS was calculated in using clumping/thresholding and Bayesian methods and was assessed for association with Alzheimer’s disease and age at onset. Penetrance and recurrence risk for carriers in highest and lowest PRS quintiles were compared separately within APOE-ε4 carriers and non-carriers.
RESULTS: PRS excluding the APOE region was strongly associated with clinical and neuropathological diagnosis of AD. PRS association with AD was similar in participants who did not carry an APOE-ε4 allele (OR = 1.74 [1.53-1.91]) compared with APOE-ε4 carriers (1.53 [1.4-1.68]). Compared to the lowest quintile, the highest PRS quintile had a 10% higher penetrance at age 70 (p = 0.0006) and a 20% higher penetrance at age 80 (p < 10e-05). Stratifying by APOE-ε4 allele, PRS in the highest quintile was significantly more penetrant than the lowest quintile, both, within APOE-ε4 carriers (14.5% higher at age 80, p = 0.002) and non-carriers (26% higher at 80, p < 10e-05). Recurrence risk for siblings conferred by a co-sibling in the highest PRS quintile increased from 4% between the ages of 65-74 years to 39% at age 85 and older.
INTERPRETATION: PRS can be used to estimate penetrance and recurrence risk in familial Alzheimer's disease among carriers and non-carries of APOE-ε4.