CCL23 is a chemokine implicated in inflammation and host defense responses. It has been recently associated with acquired brain damage and stroke outcomes. In this study, we reported the role of CCL23 in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We evaluated the levels of CCL23 in 659 individuals: cognitively normal, mild cognitive impaired (MCI), and AD patients. Two cross-sectional (study 1, n = 53; study 2, n = 200) and two longitudinal (study 3, n = 74; study 4, n = 332) studies were analyzed separately. CCL23 levels in the blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of each study were measured by immunoassays. Globally, our results suggest a predictive role of CCL23 protein levels both in the plasma in study 3 (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.5 (confidence interval (CI) 95% : 1.2-5.3), p = 0.02) and in the CSF in study 4 (HR = 3.05 (CI 95% : 1.02-5), p = 0.04) in cases of MCI that progress to AD. Moreover, we observed that the APOEɛ4 allele was associated with higher levels of CCL23 in study 2 (470.33 pg/mL (interquartile range (IQR): 303.33-597.76) versus 377.94 pg/mL (IQR: 267.16-529.19), p = 0.01) (APOE genotypes were available in studies 2 and 4). Together, these findings support the role of CCL23 in neuroinflammation in the early stages of AD, suggesting that CCL23 might be a candidate blood biomarker for MCI to AD progression.
CCL23: A Chemokine Associated with Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer’s Disease